I recently wrapped up cutting over to my PFSense firewall for my home lab.
So I wanted to share a quick blog about how I completely isolated my Kubernetes cluster on the public internet at the network level. Furthermore I wanted to share how I use SSH tunneling to have total flexibility with the cluster, while keeping my shit on lock.
I use SSH tunnels for:
- Accessing the main Kubernetes API server on the go
- Exposing in cluster services (Blogs, API endpoints, Proxy, etc)
- Exposing non-Kubernetes services (ZFS, SSHfs, Dashboards, etc)
Applications are the problem
To be very clear the Kubernetes default API is fine as far as I am concerned. It uses pre share TLS key, and I see no problems here. Everyone should feel relatively safe exposing this on the public internet.
However I am a lazy software engineer, and I run questionable applications in my cluster. I truly believe that applications in a Kubernetes cluster is the greatest liability of the cluster.
Instead of baking TLS and Auth into every application, I just use
I do a lot of dirty things in my cluster.
I run a few blogs, I have a lot of small HTTP services that do things like the
/client endpoint on nivenly.com/client.
Having a small server in the cluster listening on
0.0.0.0 is not entirely unusual for me.
Locking down the cluster
The control plane used to be listening on the public internet. I set up the cluster with
I closed the Kubernetes endpoints, ingress, and the public API endpoint at the firewall level with PFSense.
All packets on
TCP/6443 are both
Furthermore, the control plane itself is behind both an HTTPs proxy and I use port forwarding in favor of a 1:1 NAT to get traffic onto the main ingress node.
I made it a point to never give Kubernetes the ability to expose anything on the public internet.
There was just way too much fucking complexity with it, and honestly I don’t really think I want (or need) yet even more services to manage that do a lot of weird networking magic.
The thought of having some string annotation somewhere managing ingress and TLS for my cluster seemed like a recipe to get hacked. I know how lazy and careless I am.
Safety in a closed network.
So that’s it.
I just shut everything down, except for SSH access to a tiny raspberry pi listening on a private NIC behind the PFsense firewall. I just port forward SSH traffic to the raspberry pi from one of my public IP address.
I use Cilium for my CNI and I take full advantage of the packet level auth that Cilium offers.
I have 0 concerns spinning up a tiny Go server listening unencrypted on
0.0.0.0 in Kubernetes.
My blood pressure and anxiety thanks me.
Accessing my cluster on the go (SSH Tunnels!)
I am currently in a hotel room in Portland, Oregan and I wanted to work on my cluster back at the house.
Here is how I use
kubectl on the go.
SSH Tunnels are fucking awesome
ssh -L is totally your friend.
Taken from the man page.
Specifies that connections to the given TCP port or Unix socket on the local (client) host are to be forwarded to the given host and port, or Unix socket, on the remote side. This works by allocating a socket to listen to either a TCP port on the local side, optionally bound to the specified bind_address, or to a Unix socket. Whenever a connection is made to the local port or socket, the connection is forwarded over the secure channel, and a connection is made to either host port hostport, or the Unix socket remote_socket, from the remote machine. Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. IPv6 addresses can be specified by enclosing the address in square brackets. By default, the local port is bound in accordance with the GatewayPorts setting. However, an explicit bind_address may be used to bind the connection to a specific address. The bind_address of “localhost” indicates that the listening port be bound for local use only, while an empty address or ‘*’ indicates that the port should be available from all interfaces.
So I add a quick entry in my laptops
/etc/hosts that points
Then I set up an SSH tunnel. I use
Ed25519 public keys on the raspberry pi. These are slightly better than RSA keys, but honestly RSA keys are a great starting point.
ssh -v -L 6433:10.0.0.186:6443 firstname.lastname@example.org
This translates to
local-portThe port on my laptop at the hotel in Portland.
internal-ipThe internal IP address of my control plane at the house in San Francisco.
internal-portThe internal TCP port that Kubernetes is listening on (See
external-sshA valid SSH connection command such as
ssh -V -L [local-port]:[internal-ip]:[internal-port] [external-ssh]
I can now set up a handful of SSH tunnels through my raspberry pi that I know are fully encrypted to the public internet.
I can use them for internal Kubernetes pods (I don’t use ingress, or load balancers)
I like it more than
kubectl port-forward because it encrypts the data instead of just exposing it locally.
I can use it for other things in the home network such as exposing my PFsense dashboard, or accessing other services outside of Kubernetes.
I run a distributed ZFS clusters that I can also mount using SSH tunnels and systemd called forfucksake.
Basically what I am saying is that I feel very safe having my lab network locked down, and in a few seconds can easily expose whatever port whenever I want. I can safely work on the home lab, without exposing a lot of services on the public internet. This helps me relax, because you would be surprised what MITM tricks hotel wifi enjoy doing to your client session.
I just wanted to share that SSH tunnels are a totally viable solution for exposing Kubernetes itself, as well as the services in cluster.
This works for me, and my tiny use case, and I don’t have to manage a lot of complexity with tools like Istio, or cert-manager, or kubernetes access control.
Just something to keep in mind.
Bastion services, and jump boxes are your friend. Especially when you can come home from your trip and pull the SD card out of them, re-flash it, and move on with your life.
- More on SSH tunnels
- More on bastion servers and jump boxes
- I did a lot of this with kops originally, but my work there has come and gone.
Yes. I just deployed this blog to my Kubernetes cluster using an SSH tunnel. It worked great.